Education raises intelligence

Intelligence is a dubious concept in psychology and biology because it is difficult to define. In any science, something has a workable definition when it is described by unique testable operations or observations. But “intelligence” had eluded that workable definition, having gone through multiple transformations in the past hundred years or so, perhaps more than any other psychological construct (except “mind”). Despite Binet’s first claim more than a century ago that there is such a thing as IQ and he has a way to test for it, many psychologists and, to a lesser extent, neuroscientists are still trying to figure out what it is. Neuroscientists to a lesser extent because once the field as a whole could not agree upon a good definition, it moved on to the things that they can agree upon, i.e. executive functions.

Of course, I generalize trends to entire disciplines and I shouldn’t; not all psychology has a problem with operationalizations and replicability, just as not all neuroscientists are paragons of clarity and good science. In fact, the intelligence research seems to be rather vibrant, judging by the publications number. Who knows, maybe the psychologists have reached a consensus about what the thing is. I haven’t truly kept up with the IQ research, partly because I think the tests used for assessing it are flawed (therefore you don’t know what exactly you are measuring) and tailored for a small segment of the population (Western society, culturally embedded, English language conceptualizations etc.) and partly because the circularity of definitions (e.g. How do I know you are highly intelligent? You scored well at IQ tests. What is IQ? What the IQ tests measure).

But the final nail in the coffin of intelligence research for me was a very popular definition of Legg & Hutter in 2007: intelligence is “the ability to achieve goals”. So the poor, sick, and unlucky are just dumb? I find this definition incredibly insulting to the sheer diversity within the human species. Also, this definition is blatantly discriminatory, particularly towards the poor, whose lack of options, access to good education or to a plain healthy meal puts a serious brake on goal achievement. Alternately, there are people who want for nothing, having been born in opulence and fame but whose intellectual prowess seems to be lacking, to put it mildly, and owe their “goal achievement” to an accident of birth or circumstance. The fact that this definition is so accepted for human research soured me on the entire field. But I’m hopeful that the researchers will abandon this definition more suited for computer programs than for human beings; after all, paradigmatic shifts happen all the time.

In contrast, executive functions are more clearly defined. The one I like the most is that given by Banich (2009): “the set of abilities required to effortfully guide behavior toward a goal”. Not to achieve a goal, but to work toward a goal. With effort. Big difference.

So what are those abilities? As I said in the previous post, there are three core executive functions: inhibition/control (both behavioral and cognitive), working memory (the ability to temporarily hold information active), and cognitive flexibility (the ability to think about and switch between two different concepts simultaneously). From these three core executive functions, higher-order executive functions are built, such as reasoning (critical thinking), problem solving (decision-making) and planning.

Now I might have left you with the impression that intelligence = executive functioning and that wouldn’t be true. There is a clear correspondence between executive functioning and intelligence, but it is not a perfect correspondence and many a paper (and a book or two) have been written to parse out what is which. For me, the most compelling argument that executive functions and whatever it is that the IQ tests measure are at least partly distinct is that brain lesions that affect one may not affect the other. It is beyond the scope of this blogpost to analyze the differences and similarities between intelligence and executive functions. But to clear up just a bit of the confusion I will say this broad statement: executive functions are the foundation of intelligence.

There is another qualm I have with the psychological research into intelligence: a big number of psychologists believe intelligence is a fixed value. In other words, you are born with a certain amount of it and that’s it. It may vary a bit, depending on your life experiences, either increasing or decreasing the IQ, but by and large you’re in the same ball-park number. In contrast, most neuroscientists believe all executive functions can be drastically improved with training. All of them.

After this much semi-coherent rambling, here is the actual crux of the post: intelligence can be trained too. Or I should say the IQ can be raised with training. Ritchie & Tucker-Drob (2018) performed a meta-analysis looking at over 600,000 healthy participants’ IQ and their education. They confirmed a previously known observation that people who score higher at IQ tests complete more years of education. But why? Is it because highly intelligent people like to learn or because longer education increases IQ? After carefully and statistically analyzing 42 studies on the subject, the authors conclude that the more educated you are, the more intelligent you become. How much more? About 1 to 5 IQ points per 1 additional year of education, to be precise. Moreover, this effect persists for a lifetime; the gain in intelligence does not diminish with the passage of time or after exiting school.

This is a good paper, its conclusions are statistically robust and consistent. Anybody can check it out as this article is an open access paper, meaning that not only the text but its entire raw data, methods, everything about it is free for everybody.

155 education and iq

For me, the conclusion is inescapable: if you think that we, as a society, or you, as an individual, would benefit from having more intelligent people around you, then you should support free access to good education. Not exactly where you thought I was going with this, eh ;)?

REFERENCE: Ritchie SJ & Tucker-Drob EM. (Aug, 2018, Epub 18 Jun 2018). How Much Does Education Improve Intelligence? A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Science, 29(8):1358-1369. PMID: 29911926, PMCID: PMC6088505, DOI: 10.1177/0956797618774253. ARTICLE | FREE FULLTEXT PDF | SUPPLEMENTAL DATA  | Data, codebooks, scripts (Mplus and R), outputs

Nota bene: I’d been asked what that “1 additional year” of education means. Is it with every year of education you gain up to 5 IQ points? No, not quite. Assuming I started as normal IQ, then I’d be… 26 years of education (not counting postdoc) multiplied by let’s say 3 IQ points, makes me 178. Not bad, not bad at all. :))). No, what the authors mean is that they had access to, among other datasets, a huge cohort dataset from Norway from the moment when they increased the compulsory education by 2 years. So the researchers could look at the IQ tests of the people before and after the policy change, which were administered to all males at the same age when they entered compulsory military service. They saw the increase in 1 to 5 IQ points per each extra 1 year of education.

By Neuronicus, 14 July 2019

Gaming can improve cognitive flexibility

It occurred to me that my blog is becoming more sanctimonious than I’d like. I have many posts about stuff that’s bad for you: stress, high fructose corn syrup, snow, playing soccer, cats, pesticides, religion, climate change, even licorice. So I thought to balance it a bit with stuff that is good for you. To wit, computer games; albeit not all, of course.

An avid gamer myself, those who know me would hardly be surprised that I found a paper cheering StarCraft. A bit of an old game, but still a solid representative of the real-time strategy (RTS) genre.

About a decade ago, a series of papers emerged which showed that first-person shooters and action games in general improve various aspects of perceptual processing. It makes sense because in these games split second decisions and actions make the difference between win or lose, so the games act as training experience for increased sensitivity to cues that facilitate said decisions. But what about games where the overall strategy and micromanagement skills are a bit more important than the perceptual skills, a.k.a. RTS? Would these games improve the processes underlying strategical thinking in a changing environment?

Glass, Maddox, & Love (2013) sought to answer this question by asking a few dozen undergraduates with little gaming experience to play a slightly modified StarCraft game for 40 hours (1 hour per day). “StarCraft (published by Blizzard Entertainment, Inc. in 1998) (…) involves the creation, organization, and command of an army against an enemy army in a real-time map-based setting (…) while managing funds, resources, and information regarding the opponent ” (p. 2). The participants were all female because they couldn’t find enough male undergraduates that played computer games less than 2 hours per day. The control group had to play The Sims 2 for the same amount of time, a game where “participants controlled and developed a single ‘‘family household’’ in a virtual neighborhood” (p.3.). The researchers cleverly modified the StarCraft game in such a way that they replaced a perceptual component with a memory component (disabled some maps) and created two versions: one more complex (full-map, two friendly, two enemy bases) and one less so (half-map, one friendly, one enemy bases). The difficulty for all games was set at a win rate of 50%.

Before and after the game-playing, the subjects were asked to complete a huge battery of tests destined to test their memory and various other cognitive processes. By carefully parsing these out, the authors conclude that “forty hours of training within an RTS game that stresses rapid and simultaneous maintenance, assessment, and coordination between multiple information and action sources was sufficient” to improve cognitive flexibility. Moreover, authors point out that playing on a full-map with multiple allies and enemies is conducive to such improvement, whereas playing a less cognitive resources demanding game, despite similar difficulty levels, was not. Basically, the more stuff you have to juggle, the better your flexibility will be. Makes sense.

My favorite take from this paper though is not only that StarCraft is awesome, obviously, but that “cognitive flexibility is a trainable skill” (p. 5). Let me tell you why that is so grand.

Cognitive flexibility is an important concept in the neuroscience of executive functioning. The same year that this paper was published, Diamond was publishing an excellent review paper in which she neatly identified three core executive functions: inhibition/control (both behavioral and cognitive), working memory (the ability to temporarily hold information active), and cognitive flexibility (the ability to think about and switch between two different concepts simultaneously). From these three core executive functions, higher-order executive functions are built, such as reasoning (critical thinking), problem solving (decision-making) and planning.

Unlike some old views on the immutability of the inborn IQ, each one of the core and higher-order executive functions can be improved upon with training at any point in life and can suffer if something is not right in your life (stress, loneliness, sleep-deprived or sick). This paper adds to the growing body of evidence showing that executive functions can be trainable. Intelligence, however you want to define it, relies upon executive functions, at least some of them, and perhaps boosting cognitive flexibility might result in a slight increase in the IQ, methinks.

Bottom line: real-time strategy games with huge maps and tons of stuff to do are good for you. Here you go.

154 starcraft - Copy
The StarCraft images, both foreground and background, are copyrighted to © 1998 Blizzard Entertainment.

REFERENCES:

  1. Glass BD, Maddox WT, Love BC. (7 Aug 2013). Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait. PLoS One, 2;8(8):e70350. eCollection 2013. PMID: 23950921, PMCID: PMC3737212, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070350. ARTICLE | FREE FULLTEXT PDF
  2. Diamond A (2013, Epub 27 Sept. 2012). Executive Functions. 64:135-68. PMID: 23020641, PMCID: PMC4084861, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750. ARTICLE | FREE FULLTEXT PDF

By Neuronicus, 15 June 2019

Not all children diagnosed with ADHD have attention deficits

Given the alarming increase in the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the last 20 years, I thought pertinent to feature today an older paper, from the year 2000.

Dopamine, one of the chemicals that the neurons use to communicate, has been heavily implicated in ADHD. So heavily in fact that Ritalin, the main drug used for the treatment of ADHD, has its main effects by boosting the amount of dopamine in the brain.

Swanson et al. (2000) reasoned that people with a particular genetic abnormality that makes their dopamine receptors work less optimally may have more chances to have ADHD. The specialist reader may want to know that the genetic abnormality in question refers to a 7-repeat allele of a 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats in exon 3 of the dopamine receptor number 4 located on chromosome 11, whose expression results in a weaker dopamine receptor. We’ll call it DRD4,7-present as opposed to DRD4,7-absent (i.e. people without this genetic abnormality).

They had access to 96 children diagnosed with ADHD after the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV and 48 matched controls (children of the same gender, age, school affiliation, socio-economic status etc. but without ADHD). About half of the children diagnosed with ADHD had the DRD4,7-present.

The authors tested the children on 3 tasks:

(i) a color-word task to probe the executive function network linked to anterior cingulate brain regions and to conflict resolution;
(ii) a cued-detection task to probe the orienting and alerting networks linked to posterior parietal and frontal brain regions and to shifting and maintenance of attention; and
(iii) a go-change task to probe the alerting network (and the ability to initiate a series of rapid response in a choice reaction time task), as well as the executive network (and the ability to inhibit a response and re-engage to make another response) (p. 4756).

Invalidating the authors’ hypothesis, the results showed that the controls and the DRD4,7-present had similar performance at these tasks, in contrast to the DRD4,7-absent who showed “clear abnormalities in performance on these neuropsychological tests of attention” (p. 4757).

This means two things:
1) Half of the children diagnosed with ADHD did not have an attention deficit.
2) These same children had the DRD4,7-present genetic abnormality, which has been previously linked with novelty seeking and risky behaviors. So it may be just possible that these children do not suffer from ADHD, but “may be easily bored in the absence of highly stimulating conditions, may show delay aversion and choose to avoid waiting, may have a style difference that is adaptive in some situations, and may benefit from high activity levels during childhood” (p. 4758).

Great paper and highly influential. The last author of the article (meaning the chief of the laboratory) is none other that Michael I. Posner, whose attentional networks, models, and tests feature every psychology and neuroscience textbook. If he doesn’t know about attention, then I don’t know who is.

One of the reasons I chose this paper is because it seems to me that a lot of teachers, nurses, social workers, or even pediatricians feel qualified to scare the living life out of parents by suggesting that their unruly child may have ADHD. In deference to most form the above-mentioned professions, the majority of people recognize their limits and tell the concerned parents to have the child tested by a qualified psychologist. And, unfortunately, even that may result in dosing your child with Ritalin needlessly when the child’s propensity toward a sensation-seeking temperament and extravert personality, may instead require a different approach to learning with a higher level of stimulation (after all, the children form the above study had been diagnosed by qualified people using their latest diagnosis manual).

Bottom line: beware of any psychologist or psychiatrist who does not employ a battery of attention tests when diagnosing your child with ADHD.

93 adhd - Copy

Reference: Swanson J, Oosterlaan J, Murias M, Schuck S, Flodman P, Spence MA, Wasdell M, Ding Y, Chi HC, Smith M, Mann M, Carlson C, Kennedy JL, Sergeant JA, Leung P, Zhang YP, Sadeh A, Chen C, Whalen CK, Babb KA, Moyzis R, & Posner MI. (25 April 2000). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children with a 7-repeat allele of the dopamine receptor D4 gene have extreme behavior but normal performance on critical neuropsychological tests of attention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(9):4754-4759. doi: 10.1073/pnas.080070897. Article | FREE FULLTEXT PDF

P.S. If you think that “weeell, this research happened 16 years ago, surely something came out of it” then think again. The newer DSM-V’s criteria for diagnosis are likely to cause an increase in the prevalence of diagnosis of ADHD.

By Neuronicus, 26 February 2016