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The werewolf and his low fibroblast growth factor 13 levels

Petrus Gonsalvus, by anonymous
Petrus Gonsalvus, anonymous painting of the first recorded case of hypertrichosis in 1642. License: PD

Although they are very rare, werewolves do exist. And now the qualifier: werewolves as in people with excessive hair growth all over the body and not the more familiar kind that changes into a wolf every time there is a new moon. The condition is called hypertrichosis and its various forms have been associated with distinct genetic abnormalities.

In a previous report, DeStefano et al. (2013) identified the genetic locus of the X-linked congenital generalized hypertrichosis (CGH), which is a 19-Mb region on Xq24-27 that spans about 82 genes, resulting mainly from insertions from chromosomes 4 and 5. Now, they wanted to see what is the responsible mechanism for the disease. First, they looked at the hair follicles of a man afflicted with CGH that has hair almost all over his body and noticed some structural abnormalities. Then, they analyzed the expression of several genes from the affected region of the chromosome in this man and others with CGH and they observed that only the levels of the Fibroblast Growth Factor 13 (FGF13), a protein found in hair follicles, are much lower in CGH. Then they did some more experiments to establish the crucial role of FGF13 in regulating the follicle growth.

An interesting find of the study is that, at least in the case of hypertrichosis, is not the content of the genomic sequences that were added to chromosome X that matter, but their presence, affecting a gene that is located 1.2 Mb away from the insertion.

Reference: DeStefano GM, Fantauzzo KA, Petukhova L, Kurban M, Tadin-Strapps M, Levy B, Warburton D, Cirulli ET, Han Y, Sun X, Shen Y, Shirazi M, Jobanputra V, Cepeda-Valdes R, Cesar Salas-Alanis J, & Christiano AM ( 7 May 2013, Epub 19 Apr 2013). Position effect on FGF13 associated with X-linked congenital generalized hypertrichosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A., 110(19):7790-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1216412110. Article | FREE FULLTEXT PDF

By Neuronicus, 17 November 2015

Cell phones give you hallucinations

A young businessman in a suit screaming at a cell phone. By: Benjamin Miller. License FSP Standard FreeStockPhotos.biz
Photo by Benjamin Miller. License: FSP Standard FreeStockPhotos.biz

Medical doctors (MD) are overworked, particularly when they are hatchlings (i.e. Medical School students) and fledglings (interns and residents). So overworked, that in many countries is routine to have 80-hour weeks and 30-hour shifts as residents and interns. This is a concern as it has been shown that sleep deprivation impairs learning (which is the whole point of residency) and increases the number of medical mistakes (the lack of which is the whole point of their profession).

Lin et al. (2013) show that it can do more than that. Couple internship and cell phones and you get… hallucinations. That’s right. The authors asked 73 medical interns to complete some tests before their internship, then every third, sixth, and twelfth months of their internship, and after the internship. The questionnaires were on anxiety, depression, personality, and cell phone habits and hallucinations. That is: the sensation that your cell phone is vibrating or ringing when, in fact, it is not (which fully corresponds to the definition of hallucination). And here is what they found:

 Before internship, 78% of MDs experienced phantom vibration and 27% experienced phantom ringing.
 During their 1-year internship, about 85 to 95% of MDs experienced phantom vibration and phantom ringing.
 After the internship when the MDs did no work for two weeks, 50% still had these hallucinations.

Composite figure from Lin et al. (2015) showing the interns' depression (above) and anxiety (below) scores before, during, and after internship. The differences are statistically significant.
Fig. 1. Composite figure from Lin et al. (2015) showing the interns’ depression (above) and anxiety (below) scores before, during, and after internship. The differences are statistically significant.

The MDs’ depression and anxiety were also elevated more during the internship than before or after (see Fig. 1), but there was no correlation between the hallucinations and the depression and anxiety scores.

These findings are disturbing on so many levels… Should we be worried that prolonged exposure to cell phones can produce hallucinations? Or that o good portion of the MDs have hallucinations before going to internship? Or that 90% the people in charge with your life or your child’s life are so overworked that are hallucinating on a regular basis? Fine, fine, believing that your phone is ringing or vibrating may not be such a big deal of a hallucination, compared with, let’s say, “the voices told me to give you a lethal dose of morphine”, but as a neuroscientist I beg the question: is there a common mechanism between these two types of hallucinations and, if so, what ELSE is the MD hallucinating about while reassuring you that your CAT scan is normal? Or, forget about the hallucinations, should we worry that your MD is probably more depressed and anxious than you? Or, the “good” news, that the medical interns provide “a model of stress-induced psychotic symptoms” better that previous models, as the authors put it (p. 5)? I really wish there was more research on positive things (… that was a pun; hallucinations are a positive schizophrenic symptom, look it up 🙂 ).

Reference: Lin YH, Lin SH, Li P, Huang WL, & Chen CY. (10 June 2013). Prevalent hallucinations during medical internships: phantom vibration and ringing syndromes. PLoS One, 8(6): e65152. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065152. Article | FREE PDF | First time the phenomenon was documented in press

By Neuronicus, 14 October 2015