Pic of the day: Skunky beer

120 skunky beer - Copy

 

REFERENCE: Burns CS, Heyerick A, De Keukeleire D, Forbes MD. (5 Nov 2001). Mechanism for formation of the lightstruck flavor in beer revealed by time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance. Chemistry – The European Journal, 7(21): 4553-4561. PMID: 11757646, DOI: 10.1002/1521-3765(20011105)7:21<4553::AID-CHEM4553>3.0.CO;2-0. ABSTRACT

By Neuronicus, 12 July 2017

Advertisements

The FIRSTS: The rise and fall of Pokemon (2001-2005?)

90pok - Copy

Few people know that Pokemon refers not only to a game, but also to a gene. An oncogene, to be precise, with a rather strange story.

An oncogene is a gene that promotes cancer (from oncology). Conventionally, a gene name is written in lowercase italicized letters (pokemon), whereas the protein the gene makes is not italicized (POKEMON, Pokemon, or pokemon, depending on the species). Maeda et al. (2005) first established in a Petri dish that the Pokemon is required for the growth of malignant tumors. Then, through a series of classic molecular biology experiments, the scientists found out how exactly Pokemon acts to accomplish this (by suppressing the expression of anti-cancer genes). Next, they engineered mice with pokemon overexpressed and saw that the mice with a lot of Pokemon “developed aggressive tumours” (p. 282). Then the authors checked how is this gene behaving in human cancers and found out that “Pokemon is expressed at very high levels in a subset of human lymphomas” (p. 284).

And here is how the gene got its name, according to Pier Paolo Pandolfi, the leader of the research group. Bear with me because it’s complicated. [*Takes deep breath*]: PO in POK stands for POZ domain (poxvirus and zinc finger) and K in POK stands for Krüppel (zinc finger transcription factor) whereas EMON stands for erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor. POK-EMON. Simple, eh? Phew…

Truth be told, Pandolfi first named the gene pokemon at a conference in 2001 (Simonite, 2005). Then the name has been used by researchers at various scientific meetings and poster presentations.

But when the Maeda et al. paper was published in Nature in 2005 which discovered the mechanism through which the gene promotes cancer, a lot of people, scientists and journalists alike, in an attempt at humour, flooded the internet with eye-catching titles along the lines of “Pokemon causes cancer”, “Pokemon kills you” and the like. I mean, even the researchers themselves in the abstract of the paper state: “Pokemon is aberrantly overexpressed in human cancers”. In response, The Pokémon Company threatened to sue for trademark copyright infringement because they didn’t want the game to be associated with cancer, like the gene is, even if the researches said the name is an acronym (maybe they meant backronym?). In the end, the researchers changed the name of the pokemon gene to the far less enticing zbtb7.

As the question mark in the title of the post suggests, the pokeman gene may not be entirely dead yet because there are stubborn scientists that still use the name pokemon and not zbtb7. I hope they have the cash to take on Nintendo if they decide to sue after all.

Too bad the zbtb7 (a.k.a. pokemon) gene was not a beneficial gene… Because another group of researchers named their new-found gene in 2008 pikachurin and so far, Nintendo din not make any waves… That is, probably, because Pikachurin is a protein in the eye retina that is required for proper vision by speeding the electric signals. Zip zip zip Pikachurin goes…

References:

  1. Maeda T, Hobbs RM, Merghoub T, Guernah I, Zelent A, Cordon-Cardo C, Teruya-Feldstein J, & Pandolfi PP (20 Jan 2005). Role of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in cellular transformation and ARF repression. Nature, 433(7023):278-85. PMID: 15662416, DOI: 10.1038/nature03203. ARTICLE | FULLTEXT PDF at Univ. Barcelona
  2. Simonite T (15 Dec 2005). Pokémon blocks gene name. Nature, 438(7070):897. PMID: 16355177, DOI: 10.1038/438897a. ARTICLE 

By Neuronicus, 18 July 2016

Orgasm-inducing mushrooms? Not quite

Claims that there is an orgasm-inducing mushroom in Hawaii may not be entirely accurate. Drawing and licensing unknown.
Claims that there is an orgasm-inducing mushroom in Hawaii may not be entirely accurate. Author and licensing of the above drawing unknown.

A few weeks ago, the social media has bombarded us with the eye-catching news that there is a mushroom in Hawaii whose smell induces spontaneous orgasms in women, but not men, who found its smell repugnant.

Except that it appears there is no such mushroom. Turns out the 14 year old paper is written by the president of a Hawaiian company that sells organic medicinal mushrooms. Not only written, but funded, as well. This is enough to damn the credibility of any study (that’s why scientists must declare competing interest when submitting a paper). But it also seems that the study has major fundamental flaws, like not having a single objective measure (of the quantity of spores, for example), is done under non-controlled environmental conditions (the participants seem to have known what was expected from them), there have been no replications, etc. Actually, it should have been suspicious to me from the start that nothing happened in the following 14 years; you would think that such claims would have been replicated, or at least the mushroom identified. But, as they say, hindsight is 20-20. Here is some nice little reporting exposing the business in Huffington Post and ScienceAlert.

I am not blaming the science media outlets on this one, like IFL Science or NBC affiliate, as I thought of covering this study myself, should I have been able to get my hands on the full text of the paper. In all honesty, who wouldn’t want to read that paper, especially since the abstract speculated on the mushroom’s spores having hormone-like chemicals that mimic the human neurotransmitters released during sexual encounters? But I (and others) have searched in vain for the full text and the most parsimonious explanation is that it was buried or withdrawn.

The trite but true message is: even the science media (including this one) is prone to mistakes. Interested in something? Go to the source and read the whole paper yourself, even the small print (like the one with competing interests), and only then make an opinion. That’s why I always post the links to the original article.

Reference: Holliday, J.C. & Soule, N. (2001). Spontaneous Female Orgasms Triggered by Smell of a Newly Found Tropical Dictyphora Species. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 3: 162-167. Abstract | Debunking in The Journal of Wild Mushrooming | Debunking in Discover Magazine

By Neuronicus, 17 October 2015