In 1863, using the microscope, a german neuroanatomist from the University of Bonn by the name of Otto Friedrich Karl Deiters describes in exquisite detail the branch-like processes of the neuron (i. e. dendrites) and the long, single “axis cylinder” (i.e. axon). Deiters’ nucleus is named after him (the place where a good portion of the cranial nerve VIII ends).
The book with the findings is published in German, posthumously (in 1865), with preface and under the editorial guidance of Max Schultze, another famous German anatomist. I got the information from Debanne et al. (2011), which is nice review on axon physiology (my German is kindda rusty due to lack of use). But I got my hands on the original German book (see link below) and, like a kid that doesn’t know how to read yet, all I could do was marvel at the absolutely stunning drawings by OFK Deiters. Which are truly and unequivocally beautiful. See for yourself.
Original citation: Deiters OFK (1865). Untersuchungen über Gehirn und Rückenmark des Menschen und der Säugethiere. Ed. Max Schultze, Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1865. doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.15270. Book | PDF
By Neuronicus, 24 October 2015