Parabiosis is a surgical procedure that lets two animals to share the same blood; it’s a case of reverse conjoined twins restricted to the circulatory system.
The procedure is over 150 years old and is a useful technique in physiology, though rarely used, probably due to the perceived cruelty towards the animals, although today is performed under anesthesia and aseptic condition. It delivered good data; for example, it was a parabiosis experiment with rodents that showed is not the sugar in the blood that causes cavities but the sugar in the mouth. Similarly, parabiosis has been proven useful in cancer, diabetes, and ageing research.
Scudellari (2015) wrote a News piece for Nature describing some advancements in the ageing field using the parabiosis technique. Namely, by joining the circulatory systems of a young and an old mouse, researchers have observed that the old mouse is faster, smarter, with rejuvenated muscles and glossier fur. Now the race is to find out what in the blood does it. Researchers caution that the young blood is not effectively reversing ageing, but may have factors circulating in it that promote tissue repair. Already a muscle-rejuvenating protein has been identified.
I am not going through the original papers themselves as I usually do (they are provided as links in the Reference paper). Instead, I am featuring the news piece by Scudellari because in addition of looking at parabiosis and ageing result, it also provides a nice historical account of the use of parabiosis. Enjoy!
By Neuronicus, 4 January 2015