Yeast can make morphine

poppy - Copy

Opiates like morphine and heroin can be made at home by anybody with a home beer-brewing kit and the right strain of yeast. In 2015, two published papers and a Ph.D. dissertation described the relatively easy way to convince yeast to make morphine from sugar (the links are provided in the Reference paper). That is the bad news.

The good news is that scientists have been policing themselves (well, most of them, anyway) long before regulations are put in place to deal with technological advancements by, for example, limiting access to the laboratory, keeping things under lock and key, publishing incomplete data, and generally being very careful with what they’re doing.

Complimenting this behavior, an article published by Oye et al. (2015) outlines other measures that can be put in place so that this new piece of knowledge doesn’t increase the accessibility to opiates, thereby increasing the number of addicts, which is estimated to more than 16 million people worldwide. For example, researchers can make the morphine-producing yeast dependent on unusual nutrients or engineer the existing strain to produce less-marketable varieties of opiates or prohibit the access to made-to-order DNA sequences for this type of yeast and so on.

You may very well ask “Why did the scientists made this kind of yeast anyway?” Because some medicines are either very expensive or laborious to produce by the pharmaceutical companies, the researchers have sought a method to make these drugs more easily and cheaply by engineering bacteria, fungi, or plants to produce them for us. Insulin is a good example of an expensive and hard-to-get-by drug that we managed to engineer yeast strains to produce it for us. And opiates are still the best analgesics out there.

Reference: Oye KA, Lawson JC, & Bubela T (21 May 2015). Drugs: Regulate ‘home-brew’ opiates. Nature, 521(7552):281-3. doi: 10.1038/521281a. Article | FREE PDF

By Neuronicus, 2 January 2016

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