Polymerases are enzymes that synthesize nucleic acids. The main types of polymerases are DNA polymerases and RNA polymerases. Everything alive has them. Saying that you cannot have cellular life on Earth without them is like saying you cannot have a skeleton without bones.
The first polymerase was discovered by Arthur Kornberg in 1956. Of note, his (and his two postdocs and lab technician) discovery was rejected for publication by The Journal of Biological Chemistry basically on the grounds that they don’t know what they’re talking about or they’re not qualified to talk about it. It took a new Editor-in-Chief to push the publication which finally appeared in the July 1958 issue. Talk about politicking in academia…
Anyway, less than a year since publication, in 1959, Kornberg (but not his co-authors) received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the polymerase. Which he isolated from a bug called E. Coli, the same bacterium that can be found in your intestines and poop or can give you food poisoning (same species, but not necessarily the same strain).
Reference: Lehman IR, Bessman MJ, Simms ES, & Kornberg A (July 1958). Enzymatic Synthesis of Deoxyribonucleic Acid. I. Preparation of Substrates and Partial Purification of an enzyme from Escherichia Coli. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 233:163-170. FREE FULLTEXT PDF | 2005 JBC Centennial Cover
By Neuronicus, 7 November 2015